Saturday, March 14, 2020

Information Systems The WritePass Journal

Information Systems Introduction Information Systems IntroductionOverview of the e-commerce modelsUnique features of the e-commerce technologiesUbiquityInformation densityOpen standardsGlobal ReachPersonalisationInformation density and richness in Amazon’s Simple Storage Service (S3)ConclusionBibliography:Related Introduction The growth of e-commerce in the world has led to a remarkable shift from the traditional to the modern and internet-based business operations. The internet and web applications are the major drives for this trend. It is reported that the volume of goods and services traded over the internet since 1995 has more than doubled. The efficiency and reliability that is associated with online marketing can be attributed to the massive implementation of cloud computing systems in the world of business. Since 1995, several companies have dominated the electronic marketplace, including the ‘big four’ group that consists of Amazon, Google, eBay and Yahoo (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.3). Consumer sales are hugely expanding as a result of advancement in the e-commerce technologies. According to the 2005 Forrester Research, the consumer sales had grown by more than 23% from 2000, to approximately $172 billion (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.7). The growth of wireless internet networks, broadband systems and web applications can perhaps be termed as the powerhouses of the modern e-commerce. This paper explores the various unique characteristics of the e-commerce technologies, citing the use of reliable information storage in Amazon as a good example. Overview of the e-commerce models   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The classification of e-commerce takes mainly two dimensions; the market relationship and the underlying technology. With respect to the market relationships, e-commerce exists in three models, namely Business-to-Consumer (B2C), Business-to-Business (B2B) and the Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.17). However, the B2C is the most common model of e-commerce, since it encompasses the business activities as performed by both the online retailers and the potential customers. In the year 2005, the B2C e-commerce was estimated to have a value of approximately $140 billion in the US. However, this volume has since grown to a whooping $170 billion (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.7). The B2C e-commerce comprises of several components, such as web portals, online marketers, content applications, service providers and also online brokers, among others. On the basis of technology, e-commerce is divided into two groups. These include peer-to -peer (P2P) and mobile e-commerce (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.18). The P2P entails the transfer of various multimedia contents through wired and wireless networks, while the mobile e-commerce is mainly conducted by using mobile devices and networks. Unique features of the e-commerce technologies The commercial success in e-commerce has been experienced due to advancement in the supportive technologies. It is predicted that these technologies will continue propagating; a trend that will definitely take e-commerce to higher levels (Barnes, 2007, p.118). The rapid growth in the e-commerce technologies can be attributed to the numerous business requirements that have emerged in the Fortune 500 enterprises (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.18). The e-commerce technologies are characterised by various unique features. However, most of these features are also associated with the internet, which is the main driving force of e-commerce. These unique features include ubiquitous computing, information richness, universality in technology standards and also reliable interactivity (Barnes, 2007, p.118). Personalization of the online products, global reach and information density are characteristics of e-commerce technologies as well (Barnes, 2007, p.118). These features are beneficial in the prom otion of e-commerce, since they support cost-effective business operations. The internet and the associated web-based applications are immensely important in connecting e-retailers to potential online shoppers. Ubiquity   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Ubiquity is perhaps the most unique feature of e-commerce technologies. Ubiquity refers to the aspect of ready availability of e-commerce models, products and services. Therefore, e-commerce is available all the time and anywhere in the globe (Barnes, 2007, p.118). The internet connection provides a solid medium through which e-marketers can communicate to potential customers and vice versa. The property of ubiquity in e-commerce technologies is important since it eliminates the possible geographical barriers (, 2010). Business stakeholders can take part in trading from the comfort of their office desktops and mobile devices regardless of their geographical location, without encountering physical restrictions. Ubiquitous computing in e-commerce helps in reducing the transactions costs, since the e-retailers and online shoppers do not have to print catalogues, product specifications or any other trade documents. Such documents can be produced electronically in the cloud computing platform, and the issue of travelling is largely eliminated (, 2010). The reduction in these transaction costs is beneficial to both the marketers and the consumers. Therefore, the ubiquity of e-commerce technologies eliminates the physical barriers which characterise traditional markets. Ubiquity in e-commerce technologies also enables the expansion of product markets. This occurs in the sense that it leads to the reduction in the entry and exit barriers (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.12). The time barrier is also eliminated in ubiquitous computing, since the business transactions can be carried out at any time of the day. Internet connectivity and the presence of shopping websites are provided every time, a factor that facilitates an appropriate expansion of the marketplace. In addition to reducing transaction costs, ubiquity also entails reducing the cognitive energy that is required in executing e-commerce activities. According to Laudon and Traver (2004, p.12), the cognitive energy is the mental effort that is applied on a certain task. In the e-commerce technologies, the mental energy required to execute business transactions over the internet is lower than in traditional business practices (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.12). Thus, ubiquity of these technologies has helped in generating desirable efficiencies and differentiation models. Information density E-commerce technologies have solved the problem of information overload. These technologies are capable of handling voluminous amounts of data and information, which is an essential process in electronic transactions (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). Cloud-based systems can offer virtual storage techniques, which are unlimited in terms of scalability. The use of e-commerce technologies has enabled the improvement in information quality. The information density challenge is adequately addressed by these technologies, since they are characterised by superior storage and data handling mechanisms (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13).   The aspect of information richness in e-commerce technologies helps virtually all the online business stakeholders, ranging from the e-retailers, online shoppers and also the cloud computing service providers. The integration of the various aspects of business information is heavily dependent on this feature of e-commerce technologies. The incorporation of various m ultimedia contents into marketable products is enabled by the efficiency in the e-commerce technologies (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). The large amount of data and information that can be handled by internet databases such as Amazon’s S3 helps in leveraging the aspects of online marketing. Information richness in e-commerce technologies also entails the reliability in collecting and processing of business data (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.14). The assessment of marketing trends in e-commerce relies on the superiority of the e-commerce technologies. Some e-commerce technologies such as Podcasting and internet broadband have led to improvement in accuracy and process precision in the execution of online transactions. In addition, many online products such as music and video streams are delivered in timely manner (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.14). This is because the customer only needs to subscribe to the relevant e-marketing websites, and then download the respective files. Similarly to ubiquity of e-commerce technologies, the aspect of information richness and density eradicates several forms of transaction costs, such as travelling, printing and communication. Hence, it can be presumed that information density is an immensely important feature of e-marketing technologies in th e global electronic marketplace (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). There are many online transactions that are carried out every day, and the need for unlimited virtual storage is a necessity in the modern e-commerce. Open standards Most of the e-commerce technologies use open standards in order to evade any territorial or regional restrictions that may be imposed by some countries. In the open standards, all the technologies that are involved in e-commerce are allowed to operate under a common platform. These standards include the TCP/IP protocol, XML and HTML (Kraemer, 2006, p.355). These universal standards in e-commerce technologies are supported by public networks, unlike the case of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) systems which mainly depend on private networks. Open standards such as the XML support universal connection in terms of enabling adequate indexing of software products (Kraemer, 2006, p.355).   However, the EDI has changed over time, and it is reported that several corporate enterprises have implemented this standard in e-commerce. The Open Buying Internet (OBI) and Open Trading Protocol (OTP) have become reliable standards in the modern e-commerce (, n.d). The OBI standard enables al l e-commerce systems to communicate freely, without protocol disparities that may hinder the growth of e-commerce activities. On the other hand, the OTP standard has integrated online payment systems in e-commerce (, n.d). Some of the payment processes that are supported by this universal standard include purchase receipts, trade agreements and also the actual payments. Netscape’s Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a universal protocol that was founded with an aim of promoting the aspects of online privacy (, n.d). This protocol ensures that e-commerce stakeholders can exchange information and data through secure platforms, by a way of using a public encryption key. The SSL protocol supports the transfer of data from any source point to various destinations in a secure manner. Therefore, the system does not impose any restrictions on the basis of regional presence. The SSL has been implemented in various universal standards, such as the Open Profiling Standard (OPS) (, n.d). The OPS is used by e-commerce organisations such as Microsoft and Firefly, in order to enhance security and privacy of merchants and consumers’ data over the internet. The field of electronic payments has received intense attention from various e-commerce players. Thus, there has been a burning need to develop superior open standards that will govern the i ntegration of electronic payment transactions. The Secure Electronic Transactions (SET) is one of these standards, which was recently founded by the world’s leading credit payment organizations; Visa and MasterCard (, n.d). The SET standard is globally used in the banking sector, an aspect that has hugely improved efficiency in the payment transactions. Global Reach As opposed to traditional business platforms, modern e-commerce technologies allow for global reach. The online population has grown tremendously as a result of advancement in e-commerce technologies (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). In particular, the global communication technologies such as emailing, video conferencing, instant messaging and chat programs among others have succeeded in connecting a large number of people through the internet. It is reported that in 2005, the online population was approximately 1 billion people (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). However, this number has significantly increased in the recent past, to several billions. This has facilitated the expansion of the global e-marketplace, due to the implementation of reliable communication technologies. The technologies, through the properties of ubiquitous computing and global reach, have enabled cross-cultural e-commerce trade to take place in the world (, 2010). The unique feature of global reach ex plains the adequate presence of global outlets and sustainable global supply chains. This aspect has improved the sales volumes in e-commerce, with profitability margins equally benefitting. The various business operations can be performed from every place on earth by the use of these global communication technologies which are not restricted by national boundaries. The business significance of this property lies in the provision of seamless opportunities to both small and large business organisations (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). Many merchants and potential customers are connected by the use of this unique feature of e-commerce technologies. Apart from the wide geographic coverage that is offered by e-commerce technologies, the demographic aspects are addressed as well (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.13). The various web contents such as animations, videos, music files and other digital products can be viewed worldwide by people of different ages, financial stability, gender and also preferences. Thus, this global reach characteristic applies across many aspects of consumers and online merchants. Global reach has enabled the entry of more business enterprises into the platform of e-commerce in the world (, 2010). This is because it attracts a large number of customers and e-marketers alike. The e-commerce technologies have helped in the creation of a global corporate culture, which is an important requirement in developing the human resource models in any business enterprise. Therefore, it can be construed that e-commerce technologies have played a key role in improving global trading activities through the global reach feature. Personalisation E-commerce technologies can offer personalised services to consumers and online retailers. This unique feature of e-commerce is implemented through geo-marketing, a practice that involves the provision of slightly modified products to a specific region of individual on the basis of their preferences (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.16). Other e-commerce technologies such as video conferencing enable the delivery of customised products or services to the interested clients. In the USA, the Wall Street Journal allows the selection of news type by the customer through the use of e-commerce communication technologies (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.16). For instance, this American online journal allows the users to subscribe for personalised alerts on certain events. Thus, it can be concluded that e-commerce technologies are efficient in the way of promoting personalisation and customisation of digital products (Laudon Traver, 2004, p.16). The customisation of consumer’s products in e-commerce is done through constant assessment of the shopping behaviours, which include purchasing patterns. Information density and richness in Amazon’s Simple Storage Service (S3) Started in 2006, the Amazon’s S3 has become a global example of an appropriate e-commerce technology (Velte et al, 2009, p.142). The S3 was created to offer information and data storage solutions to e-commerce stakeholders. The aspect of information richness in online transactions prompted the development of this technological platform, through which people can store voluminous data. In addition, the S3 offers efficient techniques of data retrieval modification and processing (Velte et al, 2009, p.142). It has largely addressed the issue of information density to the online shoppers. The Amazon business corporation, one of the largest e-commerce players in the world, uses the S3 system to store all information concerning its online products, consumer data and marketing trends. The S3 offers scalable in the sense that it charges the customers on the basis of their request rates and data usage models. In addition, the S3 reportedly offers approximately 99.99% of information avai lability (Velte et al, 2009, p.142). This form of richness eliminates the inconveniences associated with downtime errors.   Thus, the feature of information density has worked out to the benefit of Amazon in great measures (Velte et al, 2009, p.142-143). Information density in the traditional business transactions is associated with low speeds of information processing, storage and also retrieval. However, the Amazon’s S3 system offers a high-performance mechanism of handling information and business data.   According to Velte et al (2009, p.143), the S3 system is highly efficient in terms of processing speeds. This is because it uses many supportive nodes which enable the reduction of server-side latency. Therefore, online information that is used in e-commerce activities can be made available without any unnecessary delays or failures (Velte et al, 2009, p.143). The several user applications which are used in the storage and retrieval of information in Amazon’s S3 system are equipped with strong interfaces that enable users to retrieve or update data files and information folders in efficient manner. The storage of information in this internet-based database is cost effective. This is because the company charges les s for companies which store voluminous corporate data. Online marketers do not have to prepare separate data files and product specifications sheets, since the system allows for electronic processing of these business documents (Velte et al, 2009, p.142). The S3 is an Infrastructure-as-a-Service model that also enables the users to build reliable infrastructure on which to store voluminous data (Murty, 2008, p.135). This system offers a virtualised mode of data storage, which is therefore appropriate in handling data operations. The Amazon Corporation has benefitted from the S3 in the sense that it enables the company to share large data files with other business organisations in the B2B model. This sharing of large files has led to reduction in data transmission costs, since large amounts of data can be transmitted cheaply through S3. The system’s Universal Resource Identifier (URI) enables a secure transmission of information, through providing the relevant links to data recipients (Murty, 2008, p.135). Amazon also benefits from the back up services that are provided by this system. This aspect of information richness and density ensures that data loss and leakage are avoided. Conclusion E-commerce has rapidly developed in the recent past. This trend can be attributed to the desirable unique features that exist in the e-commerce technologies. The volume of sales that results from e-commerce every single year is estimated to be approximately $170 billion in value. Thus, there is a growing need for the development of better e-commerce technologies that will facilitate significant growth in this platform. There are mainly seven unique features of e-commerce technologies. These include ubiquity, global reach, personalisation, open standards, interactivity, information density and richness. Ubiquitous computing ensures that e-commerce systems can be provided anywhere and at any time. Global reach entails the coverage of all geographic and demographic aspects of e-commerce, and it is solely enabled by the internet, which is the main medium of global communication. Amazon has created one of the most reliable information richness systems; the S3. This system offers speedy st orage and retrieval techniques to the clients. In addition, this system provides a reliable backup for the company’s data and information, thereby minimising the likelihood of data loss and leakage. Bibliography: Barnes, S. 2007. E-commerce and V-Business: Digital Enterprise in the Twenty-First   Century. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Kraemer, K. L. 2006. Global E-commerce: Impacts of National Environment and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Laudon, K. C. Traver, C. G. 2004. Introduction to E-commerce. The Revolution is Just Beginning. Retrieved June 3rd 2011 from:   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Murty, J. 2008. Programming Amazon Web Services: S3, EC2, SQS, FPS and SimpleDB.   Sebastopol: O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2010. E-Commerce: Digital Markets, Digital Goods. Retrieved June 3rd   2011 from:, n.d. Are There Any Technology Standards For E-Commerce? Retrieved June 3rd     2011 from: commerce Velte, T. et al, 2009. Cloud Computing: A Practical Approach. New York: McGraw Hill    Professional.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Global Warming's effects on Tornadoes in the Mid West Research Proposal

Global Warming's effects on Tornadoes in the Mid West - Research Proposal Example However, it is quite clear that different locations experiences distinct global warming effects. Indeed, Mid-West and especially Oklahoma is prone to global warming effects in form of tornadoes. Purpose Statement The main aim, of this paper is to research on global warming and provide supporting data on the global warming effect on strength and frequency of tornadoes on the mid-west, specifically Oklahoma and surrounding states. The research will provide evidence that indeed global warming has been leading to adverse weather effects like tornadoes in the mid-west during the recent times. In this study, I will define global warming as an independent variable, which relates to extreme changes in global temperatures due to the increase of greenhouse gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide, and methane due to anthropogenic (synthetic) causes (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2011). I will also define a combination of atmospheric instability and wind shear as the causes of tornado es (Centre for Climate and Energy Solutions, 2013). I hope that my study will seek to establish the correlation between global warming effects and the changes in the strength and frequency of tornadoes on the mid-west with special focus on Oklahoma and surrounding states. ... Many scientists assert that unless we address the causes and effects of climatic changes from global warming, the world is prone to extreme climatic effects. Various researches establish that carbon dioxide and other global warming pollutants are collecting in the atmosphere thus trapping the sun's heat and causing the planet to warm up (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2011). This has led to fast fluctuation of local temperatures in the last 50 years and scientists claim that this may advance to an increase of 3 to 9 degrees in U.S. temperatures if we do not contain the situation (Natural Resources Defense Council, 2011). Notably, droughts, tornadoes, and hurricanes are some of the adverse effects of global warming across the globe (Kunzig, 2013). Ideally, scientists have been trying to establish the relationship between global warming and tornadoes. As a result, scientists have established that indeed global warming may increase or suppress the intensity or frequency of tornadoes across the globe especially in Oklahoma and surrounding states (Kunzig, 2013). Research Questions This research seeks to address specific questions, which include: 1) Is global warming the direct cause of tornadoes in the mid-west United States? 2) If global warming persist what impact will it have on the frequency and strength of tornadoes in the mid-west United States? 3) What effect will tornadoes have on the environment, economy, agriculture, human life, settlements, aquatic life, transport, and health in Oklahoma and surrounding states? 4) What measures can reduce the incidence of tornadoes in Oklahoma and surrounding states? 6) What are the main causes and influencing

Monday, February 10, 2020

The Urban Schools in the United States Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4500 words

The Urban Schools in the United States - Essay Example tion in schools apart from the disparity in the enrollment rates of students as well as the availability of teachers belonging to different races and ethnic origins. â€Å"Equity is central to the current reform movement in science education. Although all students are capable of understanding and doing science, persistent and widespread differences continue to exist in students’ access, retention, and achievement, depending on their culture, gender, race, and socioeconomic status† (WCER, 2007). Besides, teachers and students are exposed to a lot of challenges in the urban schools. Background of Urban Schools In the United States, the education sector has been a major priority, with numerous efforts on reform being implemented to improve students’ performance. Urban schools in the United States are located in urban areas, where there are relatively high rates of poverty. Besides, the student population here possesses limited English proficiency and is, therefore r egarded as high need areas (Ruso, 2004). Gaskell (2012) claims that in the early years, wealth was accumulated by a limited number of individuals and, as a result, poverty levels in the urban areas increased significantly. The urban population in the United States increased as well, resulting in many differences, such as racism and inequality. The funding of schools among the wealthy and the poor districts remained fraught with inequality. The urban schools in the United States have, over the years, faced a declining level of test scores and high rates of violence. According to Stark (2011), urban schools in the 1800s have been started with an aim of providing immigrant parents with affordable places for their children to stay during the day as they worked in mills, factories or shops. By 1920, the urban... This essay approves that research on teacher turnover is examined and the situation in urban schools is related to the factors for teacher turnover that have emerged from the research. Finally, the review also presents factors that contribute to teachers’ motivation to stay in urban schools despite the difficult conditions. The researcher hopes that by looking at both the challenges and the motivating factors, this study will be contribute to the understanding of teacher retention in urban schools. There appears to exist a whole range of factors that demotivate teachers in general and science teachers in particular from continuing with the profession of teaching. While teachers receive only low salaries, the job is extremely demanding both in terms of time and physical as well as emotional stress it entails. The most unfortunate aspect of the job of teaching is the fact that a teacher is held wholly responsible and accountable for the behavior and results of students. The prof ession of teaching is too taxing, which prevents a teacher from attaining a balance between his or her personal and work life. This report makes a conclusion that teacher turnover is a particular problem in most of the urban schools. Negative reports about urban settings have discouraged properly qualified teachers from taking up teaching jobs in these schools. The high level of stress and exhaustion experienced in these schools also result in high teacher turnover. Despite the negative factors, however, there are some teachers that remain in the urban schools and they are motivated to provide quality education. The literature also reviews some of the teacher qualities that motivate teachers to teach in urban schools.

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Basic Ethics Essay Example for Free

Basic Ethics Essay According to Michael Boylan’s book Basic Ethics the study of ethics concerns itself with â€Å"right† and â€Å"wrong, judgments that assign praise or blame. In the case of ethics, these judgments are usually assigned to people or to actions (Boylan, 2009). This essay will discuss three major ethical theories, virtue ethics, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. It will also provide a personal experience to help explain the relationship between virtue, values, and moral concepts as it relates to utilitarianism. The three ethics theories discussed herein are the virtue ethics theory that examines a person’s character over a long period of time and is forgiving of an occasional mistake that is not consistent with a person’s past character. Deontological ethics or duty-based morality is a theory based on a â€Å"nonconsequentialist† view of people and moral decision-making. Deontological ethics supports that actions are not justified by their consequences. Rather, factors other than good outcomes determine the â€Å"rightness† of actions (Deontological Ethics, 2014). Utilitarianism in the most basic term is based on measuring â€Å"good† in terms of usefulness. Utilitarianism is often defined as an effort to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number. Also this principle advocates that the ends justify the means in other words if a negative action must be used to reach a greater good then its justified (What Is Utilitarianism?, 2014). There are marked differences between the three ethics theories. Unlike deontic or action based theories of morality that focus on the actions a person performs, the virtue theory, aka character ethics focuses on helping people develop good character traits, like kindness and generosity, â€Å"The deontological ethics is grounded in the â€Å"Categorical Imperative,† The Categorical Imperative simply declares, â€Å"Act as if the maxim of thy action  were to become by thy will a universal law of nature.† The Categorical Imperative is very similar to the â€Å"Golden Rule† of Chri stianity, and other religions (â€Å"do unto others as you would have them do unto you†)† (Deontological Ethics, 2014). On the other hand utilitarianism revolves around the concept that the end justifies the means. A personal example I have of utilitarianism being practiced was when my Father was in hospice with terminal throat cancer. He ordered a DNR, do not resuscitate. My family and I did not like his wish but it is what he chose for himself and we all accepted his final wish. Although many feel this is not right to just let someone die without trying to help the person dying the attitude on these decisions is purely determined by the person dying. The utilitarian approach can be selfish in nature because the judgments is strictly that of the person thinking of his own truth in my Fathers case his last dying wish. So depending on what kind of person you are, how you were raised, the environment you live in, your faith, the influences you may have from the social circle you belong to you all these factors could influence your ethics and depending on the situation on hand you may find yourself moving towards one or the other of these ethic theories. Morally or ethically, I would never let my Dad die without making some attempt to resuscitate him but on the other hand I set aside my moral belief and my ethics to allow my Dad his last and final wish. References Boylan, M. (2009). Basic Ethics (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Deontological Ethics. (2014, February 17). Retrieved from allaboutphilosophy .org: What Is Utilitarianism? (2014, February 17). Retrieved from

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Ellis Island and American Nationalism Essay -- American History Essays

Ellis Island and American Nationalism Many people have many different opinions of airports. Some people love going to airports and flying all around the country or the world. Others are afraid of airplanes, fearing that the plane will be hijacked. Others like coming into American airports so that they can start a new life. Some think that Arab immigrants are discriminated against when entering the country, but during the early days of American immigration many more were discriminated against. Ellis Island was corrupted with American Nationalism and the fear of the unknown. â€Å"Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame, With conquering limbs astride from land to land, Here at our sea-washed, sunset-gates shall stand A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome, her mild eyes command The air-bridged harbor the twin-cities frame. ‘Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!’ cries she, With silent lips. ‘Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore; Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!† (Lazarus, 1883) These are the words from the poem â€Å"The New Colossus† written by Emma Lazarus. This was the welcome the statue brought; ‘come here and be free, have a home, and a hope for your future.’ This is how many people, both within and outside of the United States, saw the Statue of Liberty, as a symbol of freedom. To the immigrants coming to this country, America was first visible to them in the presence of the 305 foot statue. The message of the Statue of Liberty didn’t need any translations into a... acceptable. Bibliography Allen, Leslie. Liberty: The Statue and the American Dream. Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation, New York 1985 Coan, Peter Morton. Ellis Island Interviews. Facts on File, New York 1997 Corsi, Edward. In the Shadow of Liberty. The Macmillan Company, New York 1935 Lankevich, George J. American Metropolis. New York University Press, New York 1998 Lazarus, Emma. The New Colossus. November 2, 1983. Weisberger, Bernard A. Statue of Liberty: The First Hundred Years. American Heritage Press, New York 1985 Yans-McLaughlin, Virginia and Lightman, Marjorie. Ellis Island and the Peopling of America. The New Press, New York 1997 Images from cover of Judge Magazine. March 22, 1890. Private Collection, Paris.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Renaissance in Middle Ages

In many eras, events happened as a reaction, and often an overreaction, to events of the prior era. In the Middle Ages, a proper education was extremely rare for the common people. As a reaction to the Middle Ages, in the early renaissance, there was a strong focus on a classical education consisting of Greek, Latin, the classics, and art. As the population and economy grew and books became more readily available, people became disillusioned with the impractical classical education, demanding an education leading to practical professions. In the early renaissance, emphasis was redirected from clerical to secular life. The secular humanist idea held that the church should not rule civic matters, but should guide only spiritual matters. The church disdained the accumulation of wealth and worldly goods, supported a strong but limited education, and believed that moral and ethical behavior was dictated by scripture. Humanists, however, believed that wealth enabled them to do fine, noble deeds, that good citizens needed a good, well-rounded education, and that moral and ethical issues were related more to secular society than to spiritual concerns. Humanists paid close attention to classical studies because most of the humanist philosophy was based on Greek and Roman ideas. In addition to the study of Latin and Greek, a classical education consisted of scientific matters, government, rhetoric, philosophy and art. In the Middle Ages, the church discouraged education to keep people under the control of the church. People were guided by the teachings of the church and had little opinion to what was being told to them. Books were also very costly and were mostly written in Latin, an unfamiliar language to the common people. People were taught Greek and Latin so that they could understand the books available to them. In 1445, Gutenberg invented the printing press, making books more plentiful and therefore affordable for the educated middle class. They also began printing books in European languages. By the late stages of the renaissance, the population started to rise dramatically and the economy started to boom. With a larger population, more merchants and tradesman and other people with practical skills were needed. With books more readily available, people demanded books in the many languages of Europe. As a result, the concentration in education focused on local languages, practical mathematics, science and trades. Although the renaissance reversed the practices of medieval times by restoring education in the classics and gave rebirth to independent thought, the masses demanded a redirection of education to practical and useful skills. The focus on humanism forced the Church to play a secondary role in peoples† lives. Despite the changes in education and philosophy during the renaissance, Europe eventually molded itself into a well-rounded society.

Monday, January 6, 2020

After Graduation From a Criminal Justice Degree Program 2019

People with associates degrees in criminal justice will find that the education helps them in a number of entry or lower level positions in the field. Law enforcement officers have not traditionally been required to have college-level education in order to apply. That seems to be changing slowly. While civil service exams are still involved, police and sheriffs deputy applicants in some departments may need an associates degree in criminal justice or a related field. Entry level correctional officers may encounter the same requirement, depending on the jurisdiction. A recent internet job posting for a Wisconsin correctional officer (prison guard) required an associates degree in criminal justice. A bachelors degree in criminal justice will open the door to a variety of opportunities in the field. Another recent job posting from Virginia was for the director of an inter-agency gang task force. The job description included knowledge of regional gang activities and interdiction efforts, the ability to respond to night and weekend incidents. In addition, the applicant was charged with multi-agency coordination not always an easy task among law enforcement organizations. At the same time, the applicant had to be capable of community outreach, grant writing and funding solicitation from legislative bodies. Thats a complex set of responsibilities: the educational requirement was a bachelors in criminal justice. .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d:active, .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .u0d4696224501b024d78c677f37f5310d:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ The Career Builder - A Master's Degree in Computer SciencePositions within police departments can require criminal justice degrees. Specialized inspectors such as the Criminalistics Supervisor, a position recently posted by the Lakewood Colorado Police Department, require a bachelors. This particular position is overseeing a team of forensics technicians to assemble as complete a position as possible from a crime scene. As law enforcement becomes specialized and more technology is employed, higher levels of education become the standard. There are a number of federal inspectors jobs that require masters degrees. Federal civil service rankings often have college level education requirements that can serve as substitutes for service in the next lower civil service rank. What is surprising is the number of agencies that have need for people with criminal justice educations. The Small Business Administration, The Drug Enforcement Administration, various branches of the Department of Justice have divisions that require oversight these are a few of the listings youll find in federal job postings. Nearly every cabinet level department has an enforcement division, and people with graduate degrees in criminal justice will fit into many of them. .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801 { padding:0px; margin: 0; padding-top:1em!important; padding-bottom:1em!important; width:100%; display: block; font-weight:bold; background-color:#eaeaea; border:0!important; border-left:4px solid #34495E!important; box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -moz-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -o-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); -webkit-box-shadow: 0 1px 2px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.17); text-decoration:none; } .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801:active, .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; text-decoration:none; } .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801 { transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; } .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801 .ctaText { font-weight:bold; color:inherit; text-decoration:none; font-size: 16px; } .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801 .post Title { color:#000000; text-decoration: underline!important; font-size: 16px; } .ua4567868b1ee6e5c12384b3ac5686801:hover .postTitle { text-decoration: underline!important; } READ Projects and Project Management TrainingState departments of fish and game have enforcement divisions, as do environmental agencies. Graduate students in criminal justice have studied the psychology of enforcement practices in large social settings. Some of those principles are applicable for crime categories such as violations on federal wildlife preserves or illegal dumping of pollutants. White collar violations require investigations, by investigative bureaus which require oversight. It is in that sort of niche that a Master of Science/Criminal Justice Administration would fit admirably. You dont have to dig too deeply into the internet search engines to find a remarkable number of career choices open to people with criminal justice degrees, of any level. Its just a matter of patience, coupled with a little perseverance. 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